Salah-ud-din Ayyubi, commonly known as Salah-ud-din or Saladin, was the Sultan of the Muslim world from 1175 to 1193. He was responsible for ending the first crusade and retaking Jerusalem from the Crusaders. His victory over them was not just a military victory but also a strategic one. His strategic planning and clever use of spies helped him win the battle against the Christians and make Islam strong again. Here is how he did it…
An Overview of the Crusades
The Crusades were a series of wars fought between the 11th and 14th century primarily between Europeans and Muslims. While the Europeans were fighting for land, the Muslims were fighting to save the land that was left. The main reason for the Crusades was the belief that God wanted the Europeans to reclaim the holy land. They believed this because they thought God wanted them to be purified. The Europeans had heard that the Muslims were keeping the Christians out of Jerusalem. The Christians believed this would be a good place to build churches and temples; however, the Muslims had a different plan. The Crusades were a series of wars fought between the 11th and 14th century primarily between Europeans and Muslims. While the Europeans were fighting for land, the Muslims were fighting to save the land that was left. The main reason for the Crusades was the belief that God wanted the Europeans to reclaim the holy land. They believed this because they thought God wanted them to be purified. The Europeans had heard that the Muslims were keeping the Christians out of Jerusalem. The Christians believed this would be a good place to build churches and temples; however, the Muslims had a different plan.
Who was Saladin?
Saladin was a Muslim military leader who was born in 1137 in what is now Iraq. He spent most of his early life in the service of the ruler of Damascus, and he was therefore commander of the Muslim forces defending Damascus when the first Crusaders arrived in 1148. He distinguished himself with his bravery during the Battle of the Horns of Hittin (June, 1187), which ended in a decisive Muslim victory and the recapture of Jerusalem. By the terms of his agreement with the Byzantine emperor, Saladin was supposed to return Jerusalem to Christian rule, and so in October, 1187, he invited the surviving members of the Jerusalem clergy to assemble in the Temple Mount area, where he turned over the keys to the city gates.
Salah-ud-din’s Preparation for War
Before Salah-ud-din could start a war against the crusaders, he had to build his army. He also needed to decide where the war should be fought. He knew that he would have to attack the crusaders where they were strong, so he decided that he should attack the crusaders at their strongest castle—Jerusalem. Before he could attack Jerusalem, he needed to make sure the Muslim lands were safe. Salah-ud-din was very organized and planned everything. He started by building an army of about 100,000. However, he didn’t just put any person in the army; he put together a team of both professional and amateur fighters.
How Salah-ud-din Defeated The Crusaders
Salah-ud-din knew that he had to attack the crusaders at a time when they would be the least ready. After careful observation, Salah-ud-din noticed that the crusaders had a serious problem with water. The crusaders needed water to survive, so they had to make sure that they had plenty of water. The crusaders had built a water system that brought water to the castle of Jerusalem.
Salah-ud-din knew that the crusaders’ water system was very important and was their biggest weakness. So, Salah-ud-din decided to cut off the water supply to the crusaders. He used three strategies to achieve this. The first strategy was to build a fake water system that would get the crusaders used to having water. The second strategy was to dig a trench that would cut off the water supply to the crusaders. Salah-ud-din used his best engineers to dig the trench and make it almost impossible for the crusaders to get water. The third and most important strategy was to use spies to find out exactly how the crusaders were getting water.
A Timely Discussion on the History of Saladin’s Conquest Of Jerusalem
When Saladin’s army took Jerusalem in 1187, it was seen as a terrible tragedy by Christians. The city had been captured before – most recently in 1098 – but this time the Crusaders could not get it back. Their failure led to the collapse of their Kingdom of Jerusalem, and until its final capture in 1244, Acre remained the capital of a much smaller Frankish state. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the history of the Crusades and the rediscovery of documents from that period. There has also been a great deal of interest in Saladin (1137-1193), who remains a famous figure almost 800 years after his death. These two trends have led to a number of new books on the subject, including numerous biographies of Saladin, some written for young readers.
Why did Saladin take Jerusalem?
Saladin’s decision to take Jerusalem was taken early in the Sixth Crusade, which had begun in 1187. When his army captured the city, they also took a large number of Crusader prisoners. Saladin’s intention was to exchange these prisoners for Muslim leaders who had been captured by the Crusaders. He may have hoped that the Crusaders would refuse to negotiate for the release of their prisoners, which would have allowed him to kill the prisoners. Negotiations for the exchange of prisoners were held at the port city of Acre.
The Battle of Hattin
The Battle of Hattin took place on July 4, 1187, near the town of Tiberias, in what is now Israel. The battle was fought between the army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem – led by King Guy of Jerusalem and the military orders – and the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty (Muslim) of Saladin. The result of the battle was an overwhelming Muslim victory, and the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin’s forces. Almost all of the Crusaders who were not killed were captured, including King Guy and the majority of the Templar and Hospitaller Knights. The battle is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in the history of the Crusades, as it marked the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the final conquest of the Holy Land by the Muslims.
The Fall of Jerusalem
With the battle lost, the Christian population of Jerusalem began to flee the city. Many were killed as they tried to leave, and the victorious forces soon began to loot the city. Before long, however, Saladin’s men began to realize that it would not be possible to defend the city. Soon afterwards, Saladin arrived in Jerusalem and issued a general amnesty for all of the inhabitants. It is not clear why he took this step. One possibility is that he wanted to show his respect for the holy city. Another is that he was worried that the looting might lead to a revolt against his rule.
What happened to the Christians in Jerusalem?
Saladin’s amnesty allowed the Christian inhabitants to stay in Jerusalem and keep their property. His decision not to expel them was remarkable, given that the Crusaders had previously expelled all the Muslims who had lived in Jerusalem. As a result, Saladin’s conquest marked a new era in the history of Jerusalem. Christians were able to visit the city and pray at the shrines there, but they were not allowed to settle there permanently.
The fall of Jerusalem in 1187 was a major event in the history of the Crusades. It is still often seen as a terrible tragedy by Christians, who had long believed that the city belonged to them. Saladin’s decision to allow the Christians to remain in Jerusalem marked a change from earlier Muslim conquests. It set the tone for the relationship between Muslims and Christians in the city for the next 400 years. The fall of Jerusalem was a traumatic event for the Christians of Europe. It led to the Third Crusade, which was largely unsuccessful. The event was also widely discussed in Europe, where it was seen as a terrible warning against the dangers of sinful living.
In this article, we learned how Salah-ud-din Ayyubi defeated the crusaders. His victory over them was not just a military victory but also a strategic one. His strategic planning and clever use of spies helped him win the battle against the Christians and make Islam strong again. If you ever find yourself in a situation where all odds are against you, remember to think like Salah-ud-din and you never know what might happen!